apache WordPress

Speed up WordPress with Apache and Varnish

Varnish is an open source, state of the art web application accelerator.

What it does is make your existing site faster by caching requests so your web server doesn’t have to handle them. This helps because your web server may be a lumbering giant like Apache that is loaded up with extra functionality like PHP, the GD library, mod_rewrite and all the other tools you need to make your website. All these modules unfortunately make your general purpose web server slower and heavier so by avoiding it your site spits out pages much faster!

Varnish sits in front of your webserver. Most documentation I’ve read on the subject suggest having Apache listen on any port other than port 80 and then have Varnish listen on port 80 of the external IP address. There’s no need to do this as I configured Apache to listen on port 80 of the or localhost address while Varnish sits on the external IP.

Installing Varnish

Setting up Varnish is fairly easy. I’m going to assume that you’re already using Apache and On a Debian based system just use this to install it (as root)

apt-get install varnish


You need to configure Apache first. It has to listen on port 80 of the localhost interface. Edit /etc/apache2/ports.conf and change the following settings:


Normally Apache listens on port 80 of all interfaces so you’ll probably just have to add “” in front of the 80.


By default Varnish won’t start. You need to edit /etc/default/varnish. Change the following options in that file:


             -T localhost:6082 \
             -f /etc/varnish/default.vcl \
             -S /etc/varnish/secret \
             -s file,/var/lib/varnish/$INSTANCE/varnish_storage.bin,1G"

Replace EXTERNAL_IP_ADDRESS with the IP of your external IP address.

Now edit /etc/varnish/default.vcl. The file should already exist but most of it is commented out. First of all change the “Backend default”:

backend default {
    .host = "";
    .port = "80";

This tells Varnish that Apache is listening on port 80 of the localhost interface.

I’m going to define several functions in the default.vcl now. Comments in the code should explain what most of it does.

# Called after a document has been successfully retrieved from the backend.
sub vcl_fetch {
    # Uncomment to make the default cache "time to live" is 5 minutes, handy 
    # but it may cache stale pages unless purged. (TODO)
    # By default Varnish will use the headers sent to it by Apache (the backend server)
    # to figure out the correct TTL. 
    # WP Super Cache sends a TTL of 3 seconds, set in wp-content/cache/.htaccess

    # set beresp.ttl   = 300s;

    # Strip cookies for static files and set a long cache expiry time.
    if (req.url ~ "\.(jpg|jpeg|gif|png|ico|css|zip|tgz|gz|rar|bz2|pdf|txt|tar|wav|bmp|rtf|js|flv|swf|html|htm)$") {
            unset beresp.http.set-cookie;
            set beresp.ttl   = 24h;

    # If WordPress cookies found then page is not cacheable
    if (req.http.Cookie ~"(wp-postpass|wordpress_logged_in|comment_author_)") {
        set beresp.cacheable = false;
    } else {
        set beresp.cacheable = true;

    # Varnish determined the object was not cacheable
    if (!beresp.cacheable) {
        set beresp.http.X-Cacheable = "NO:Not Cacheable";
    } else if ( req.http.Cookie ~"(wp-postpass|wordpress_logged_in|comment_author_)" ) {
        # You don't wish to cache content for logged in users
        set beresp.http.X-Cacheable = "NO:Got Session";
    }  else if ( beresp.http.Cache-Control ~ "private") {
        # You are respecting the Cache-Control=private header from the backend
        set beresp.http.X-Cacheable = "NO:Cache-Control=private";
    } else if ( beresp.ttl < 1s ) {
        # You are extending the lifetime of the object artificially
        set beresp.ttl   = 300s;
        set beresp.grace = 300s;
        set beresp.http.X-Cacheable = "YES:Forced";
    } else {
        # Varnish determined the object was cacheable
        set beresp.http.X-Cacheable = "YES";
    if (beresp.status == 404 || beresp.status >= 500) {
        set beresp.ttl = 0s;

    # Deliver the content

sub vcl_hash {
    # Each cached page has to be identified by a key that unlocks it.
    # Add the browser cookie only if a WordPress cookie found.
    if ( req.http.Cookie ~"(wp-postpass|wordpress_logged_in|comment_author_)" ) {
        set req.hash += req.http.Cookie;

# Deliver
sub vcl_deliver {
    # Uncomment these lines to remove these headers once you've finished setting up Varnish.
    #remove resp.http.X-Varnish;
    #remove resp.http.Via;
    #remove resp.http.Age;
    #remove resp.http.X-Powered-By;

# vcl_recv is called whenever a request is received
sub vcl_recv {
    # remove ?ver=xxxxx strings from urls so css and js files are cached.
    # Watch out when upgrading WordPress, need to restart Varnish or flush cache.
    set req.url = regsub(req.url, "\?ver=.*$", "");

    # Remove "replytocom" from requests to make caching better.
    set req.url = regsub(req.url, "\?replytocom=.*$", "");

    remove req.http.X-Forwarded-For;
    set    req.http.X-Forwarded-For = client.ip;

    # Exclude this site because it breaks if cached
    #if ( == "" ) {
    #    return( pass );

    # Serve objects up to 2 minutes past their expiry if the backend is slow to respond.
    set req.grace = 120s;
    # Strip cookies for static files:
    if (req.url ~ "\.(jpg|jpeg|gif|png|ico|css|zip|tgz|gz|rar|bz2|pdf|txt|tar|wav|bmp|rtf|js|flv|swf|html|htm)$") {
        unset req.http.Cookie;
    # Remove has_js and Google Analytics __* cookies.
    set req.http.Cookie = regsuball(req.http.Cookie, "(^|;\s*)(__[a-z]+|has_js)=[^;]*", "");
    # Remove a ";" prefix, if present.
    set req.http.Cookie = regsub(req.http.Cookie, "^;\s*", "");
    # Remove empty cookies.
    if (req.http.Cookie ~ "^\s*$") {
        unset req.http.Cookie;
    if (req.request == "PURGE") {
        if (!client.ip ~ purge) {
                error 405 "Not allowed.";
        purge("req.url ~ " req.url " && == ";
        error 200 "Purged.";

    # Pass anything other than GET and HEAD directly.
    if (req.request != "GET" && req.request != "HEAD") {
        return( pass );
    }      /* We only deal with GET and HEAD by default */

    # remove cookies for comments cookie to make caching better.
    set req.http.cookie = regsub(req.http.cookie, "1231111111111111122222222333333=[^;]+(; )?", "");

    # never cache the admin pages, or the server-status page
    if (req.request == "GET" && (req.url ~ "(wp-admin|bb-admin|server-status)")) {
    # don't cache authenticated sessions
    if (req.http.Cookie && req.http.Cookie ~ "(wordpress_|PHPSESSID)") {
    # don't cache ajax requests
    if(req.http.X-Requested-With == "XMLHttpRequest" || req.url ~ "nocache" || req.url ~ "(control.php|wp-comments-post.php|wp-login.php|bb-login.php|bb-reset-password.php|register.php)") {
        return (pass);
    return( lookup );


  1. Varnish caches Javascript and CSS files without the cache buster ?ver=xxxx parameter. Varnish doesn’t cache any url with a GET parameter so those files weren’t getting cached at all.
  2. The code removes the Cookies for Comments cookie after it checks for GET and HEAD requests. This improved caching significantly as web pages are not cached with and without that cookie. They are all cached without it. The cache hit/miss ratio went up significantly when I made these two changes.
  3. I have a private site on this server that requires login. I had to stop Varnish caching this site as the privacy plugin thought I wasn’t logged in. See the code above.
  4. If pages were purged Varnish could store cached pages for much longer.

As I didn’t modify WordPress so it would issue PURGE commands there are probably issues with the cache keeping slightly stale pages cached but I haven’t seen it happen or receive complaints about that.


Since all requests to Apache come from the local server PHP will think that the remote host is the local server. By using an auto_prepend_file set in your php.ini or .htaccess file you can tell PHP what the real IP is with this code:

if ( isset( $_SERVER[ "HTTP_X_FORWARDED_FOR" ] ) ) {

You’ll see a huge improvement if you use Apache, especially if you don’t use a full page caching plugin like WP Super Cache on your WordPress site.

To see exactly how well Varnish is working use varnishstat and watch the ratio of cache hit and miss requests. This will vary depending on your TTL and by how much time Varnish has had to populate the cache. You can also configure logging using varnishncsa as described on this page:

varnishncsa -a -w /var/log/varnish/access.log -D -P /var/run/

Now use multitail to watch /var/log/varnish/access.log and your web server’s access log.

I used a number of sites for help when setting this up. Here are a few:

I have tried Nginx in the past but could not getting it working without causing huge CPU spikes as PHP went a little mad. In comparison, Varnish was simple to install and set up. Have you tried Varnish yet? How can I improve the code above?

Edit: It looks like someone else has done the hard work. I must give the WordPress Varnish plugin a go.

This plugin purges your varnish cache when content is added or edited. This includes when a new post is added, a post is updated or when a comment is posted to your blog.


Get a sneak preview of WP Super Cache before 1.0!

WP Super Cache 1.0 will be out soon(ish) but I need testers to bang on the development version available on the download page.

This version should be significantly faster if you have a lot of mobile visitors, plus it adds support for https secure pages. The speed came about by saving those files as static files in the supercache directories rather than the old “legacy caching” of WP Cache. You’ll see files like index-mobile.html(.gz) and index-https.html(.gz) in those directories. Be aware that if you use a flat permalink structure the plugin opens the root supercache directory for reading to find the index* files. This may or may not be an issue with directories containing a very large number of directories (10,000+ for example).

HTTPS support is built into the mod_rewrite rules so those files are served by the web server directly, but PHP serves the mobile clients. Only now you’ll be able to cache many times more mobile pages than before. There’s negligible speed difference between PHP and mod_rewrite modes anyway in normal operation.

There’s also a handy little “donotcachepage” GET parameter now. Add that, giving it the value of a secret key from the Advanced settings page and the current page will not be cached in any way.

There is lots of new code in the plugin. It’s running fine here, and a few other people have had no problems but I need more feedback. If you have a development server please give this a go, and if it works ok I believe it’s good enough to go live, under supervision. Don’t go install it on a Friday afternoon…

With the upgrade to WordPress 3.2 I moved this site and my photoblog to a Multisite install so I’ve been looking at making Supercache work better in that environment too.

I also installed Varnish as a front end cache and woah, I’m impressed. Setup was fairly easy though it’s still not 100% right. When I make posts the following page is a blank page except for the blog title, and when I (as a logged in user) leave a comment I get a 500 error and wp-comments-post.php doesn’t redirect. I’m still trying to debug those issues. I mentioned this on Google Plus a few days ago but expect a follow up post on Varnish with docs in the near future.

Now all I need is traffic. I should blog more!